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Title: A review on attacks, problems and weaknesses of digital watermarking and the pixel reallocation attack
Authors: Tsang, K. F.
Au, Oscar C.
Keywords: Watermark
Pixel reallocation
Copyrights protection
Issue Date: Jan-2001
Citation: Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III, Ping Wah Wong, Edward J. Delp III, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4314, p. 385-93 (2001)
Abstract: Watermark attacks are first categorized and explained with examples in this paper. We then propose a new image watermark attack called 'Pixel Reallocation Attack'. The proposed attack is a hybrid approach, which aims to decorrelate the embedded watermark with the original watermark. Since many watermarking detections are by correlating the testing image with the target watermark, it will not work once we decorrelate the embedded watermark. For example, the geometrical transformation attacks desynchronize the correlation detector with the testing image leading to detection failure. However, by inserting a template or grid into the watermarked image can make inverse transformation possible and the watermark can be retrieved. If we apply transformations to every single pixel locally, independently and randomly, inverse transformation will not be possible and the attack will be successful since the embedded watermark is not correlated with the original watermark. Experiment shows that single technique approach needs a larger distortion to the image in order to attack the image successfully. We also tested our attack with commercial watermarking software. It cannot detect the watermark after we applied the proposed hybrid attack to the watermarked image.
Rights: Copyright 2001 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. This paper was published in Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III, Ping Wah Wong, Edward J. Delp III, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4314, p. 385-93 (2001) and is made available as an electronic reprint with permission of SPIE. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.
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