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Title: Anchor-free localization with refinement in sensor networks
Authors: Ma, Jian
Gao, Min
Zhu, Yanmin
Ni, Lionel M.
Keywords: Localization
Sensor node
Sensor networks
Anchor-free localization with refinement (AFLR)
Issue Date: 27-May-2004
Abstract: Location information is a crucial requirement for many applications in sensor networks, such as routing, data dissemination and clustering. The term localization refers to the process of determining the location of every sensor node. Ad hoc localization in sensor networks has been an active research topic in recent years. Many papers in this field focus on anchor-based solutions. Some nodes already know their locations, which are called anchors, are deployed and other nodes compute their locations based on these anchors. However, anchors should be equipped with GPS or other positioning systems which could cause additional power consumption and deployment cost. Eliminating the requirement of anchors, we propose anchor-free localization with refinement (AFLR) algorithm to compute relative positions of sensor nodes in this paper. Our algorithm consists of two phases. In initialization phase, every node builds a local graph and then all local graphs are merged together to a global graph. All nodes in this graph obtain their initial locations. The density requirement is stated and proven clearly. In refinement phase, we utilize all neighborhood information to improve the accuracy of initial locations since accumulated error is a major problem in initialization phase. Some interesting simulation results are given to verify the effectiveness of our algorithm.
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