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Title: An integrated floating-electrode electric microgenerator
Authors: Ma, Wei
Zhu, Ruiqing
Rufer, Libor
Zohar, Yitshak
Wong, Man
Keywords: Electroplating
Electrostatic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device
Energy scavenging
Post-complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)
Power generator
Issue Date: Feb-2007
Citation: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, vol. 16, no. 1, February 2007, p. 29-37
Abstract: Microfabricated electric generators, scavenging ambient mechanical energy, are potential power sources for autonomous systems. Described presently are the design, modeling, and implementation of a single-wafer floating-electrode electric microgenerator, integrating a micromechanical resonator and a number of electronic devices. Forming a plate of a variablecapacitor, the resonator is responsible for converting mechanical vibration to electricity. A sense transistor and a diode bridge are integrated, respectively, for monitoring the “charging” of the floating electrode and for rectification. A lumped electromechanical model of the generator is developed and expressed in terms of a set of nonlinear coupled state equations that are numerically solved. For small-amplitude excitation, a circuit based on a set of linearized equations is developed. The generator is realized using a compatible combination of standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) “floating gate” process and a post-CMOS photoresist molded electroplating process. Adequate agreement between model predictions and measurement results was obtained.
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