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Title: A novel blind multiple watermarking technique for images
Authors: Wong, Hon Wah
Au, Oscar C.
Yeung, Y. M.
Keywords: Data compression
Data encapsulation
Image coding
Iterative methods
Issue Date: 2003
Citation: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Aug. 2003, v. 13, no. 8, p. 813-830
Abstract: Three novel blind watermarking techniques are proposed to embed watermarks into digital images for different purposes. The watermarks are designed to be decoded or detected without the original images. The first one, called single watermark embedding (SWE), is used to embed a watermark bit sequence into digital images using two secret keys. The second technique, called multiple watermark embedding (MWE), extends SWE to embed multiple watermarks simultaneously in the same watermark space while minimizing the watermark (distortion) energy. The third technique, called iterative watermark embedding (IWE), embeds watermarks into JPEG-compressed images. The iterative approach of IWE can prevent the potential removal of a watermark in the JPEG recompression process. Experimental results show that embedded watermarks using the proposed techniques can give good image quality and are robust in varying degree to JPEG compression, low-pass filtering, noise contamination, and print-and-scan.
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