||The bilingual dictionary has a well documented pedigree (cf. Zoわgen 1991), even though only comparatively recently has the user perspective in dictionary compilation begun to be seriously analysed (e.g. Hartmann 1979, 1982, 1983, 1987; Tomaszczyk 1979; Cowie 1987; James 1989b; Diab 1990; Chi, forthcoming). As an illustration, take for example CASSELL'S GERMAN DICTIONARY (Betteridge 1978:[vii]): ... the German Dictionary fulfils a dual function: the English speaker uses the English-German section to render the English text into German; the German speaker uses the same section in order to understand the English text. [My emphasis. GJ.] That the dictionary serves two populations is recognised; that their needs are different is appreciated. That the same dictionary will adequately serve these different needs and populations is, however, assumed. A more contemporary user perspective is afforded by the CAMBRIDGE SIGNORELLI DIZIONARIO (Pappini Fontanelli 1985), an adaptation of the two-volume CAMBRIDGE ITALLIAN DICTIONARY (Reynolds 1962): The parent volumes, so to call them, were compiled and arranged from the point of view of the English-speaking user. They have proved serviceable also to Italian users, but Messrs Signorelli have wisely seen that they can be rendered even more so by a shift of emphasis ... (Reynolds, Introduction in Pappini Fontanelli 1985:) Here, the needs of the two populations of users are catered for by separate editions of the two-way dictionary.