||The emergence and mobilization of social protests have long been hot topics in social movement studies, while their outcomes have recently also received attention. The small number of empirical studies about protest outcomes has primarily focused on the effectiveness of disruptive and violent actions and the organizational viability of a successful movement. However, almost all the studies were conducted within democratic countries. Since the regime type and political culture have a lot to do with the state’s response to social protests, analysis of protest outcomes in different political contexts is needed. In a non-democratic regime like China, although the modes of political participation can be many and varied, these modes are not necessarily effective. This thesis attempts to address the effectiveness of environmental protests by analyzing 53 cases occurring in China between 1997 and 2008. The study investigates the factors shaping the consequences of environmental protests. As intervention from high-level governments is regarded as crucial for a successful protest in China, the rationale behind such intervention further indicates both the opportunities and constraints of environmental protests in China.