Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1783.1/61804

士與國家 : 明代弘治、正德年間文學復古運動研究

明代弘治、正德年間文學復古運動研究

Shi and state : a study of the Ming China literary restoration movement from 1488 to 1521

Study of the Ming China literary restoration movement from 1488 to 1521

Authors 孔健
Issue Date 2013
Summary 本論文試圖將明代弘治、正德年間(1488 - 1521)前七子文學復古運動,置於當時的文學、思想與政治語境中去考察。自成化中至弘治末年,以南方士人為主體的茶陵派執掌京師文壇,而詩學中以山林與臺閣話語並置成為這些高級官員的共識。山林詩被用於理學家的“詩教”,而成為無關政治的個人道德的象徵;茶陵派對道德詩教,乃至體現文人風流的聯句、倡和等表現出極大熱情,這種對政治的公開疏離與其相應的官僚文化實際是理學內在理路的發展邏輯。陝西督學楊一清所建立的官學系統及其教育對陝西籍士人產生了深遠影響,使得他們仍自覺地將一己與國家緊密聯繫在一起。這些士人中包括了前七子中的領袖康海與李夢陽,前者於狀元之後,在南北問題的壓力與對主流士風的不滿下,與李夢陽發起了文學復古運動。而皇權對李夢陽政治行動的支持,使得更多的士人,尤其是弘治末年的新晉進士也認同國士身份,從而使文學復古運動突破了南北地域的限制。前七子的詩文觀念與寫作正是他們這種積極經世觀的表達。康海的經世古文突破了象徵官僚文化的臺閣文體的規範,在受正德劉瑾之變牽連而被貶家居後,與王九思寄情北曲,仍可見其為北方文化爭正統的心態。而在詩歌方面,前七子強調比興 詩學,意在恢復毛傳、鄭箋對《詩經》強調美刺諷喻的詮釋傳統,而在客觀上與流行的朱熹《詩集傳》的詮釋思路不合;他們對詩史的觀念與唐代詩人的復古觀念一脈相承,但是由於過分強調比興的手法,而不得不大量採用傳統經典中的替代意象以使讀者知其諷諫之所在,或是摹擬律詩的句法而帶出主旨,但是在律詩是否也應該採用古體詩那樣的比類手法上,復古派內部產生了分歧。而在復古運動歸於沉寂的嘉靖年間,陝西士人胡纘宗編纂《雍音》,構建出了一個從《詩經》至陝西復古派士人的詩人譜系,成為這場文學復古運動的博物館式的陳列與總結。This paper examines “qian qizi’s” (the seven poets) literary revival movement in theHongzhi and Zhengde years (1488-1521) of the Ming dynasty, placing the movement under the literary, ideological and political contexts of the time. From the mid-Chenghua (1447-1487) till the end of the Hongzhi period (1488-1505), the literary arena in Beijing was dominated by the Cha Ling School, a literary group led by Li Dongyang, and mainly composed of scholars from the South. Amongst all poetic styles, the Cha Ling scholars, many of whom were senior government officials, held “shan lin” and “tai ge” most highly. “Shan lin” poetry was conceived as “shijiao’ (poetic teaching) by the neo-Confucianists, an ethical symbol which focuses on moral construction. The Cha Ling scholars shared the similar “shijiao” view, and also had a keen interest in such literary matters as “lian ju” (linked verses), “chang he” (verses in chorus), developing its bureaucratic culture at that time. This was not due to the tense relationship between the literati and the imperial authority which was suggested by Yu Yingshi, but the inner-thinking of the Confucian theories. On the other hand, in Shanxi, government official Yang Yiqing built an education system that turned out to be greatly influential. It created a sense of national consciousness in many people in the Shanxi province, including Kang Hai, leader of the “qian qizi;” and Li Mengyang. After achieving success in the imperial examination, pressurized by the North-South issue and disappointed by the mainstream literati, Kang initiated a literary revival movement with Li. The movement gained the imperial power’s support, and it was joined by many other scholars. In the late Hongzhi period, a number of new “jinshi” scholars showed their identification with the movement’s cause. The movement made new ground, having the support of both northern and southern scholars. The literary concepts and writings of the “qian qizi” showed an active concern in social and political affairs. Kang Hai’s scripts break through the limitations of the “tai ge” style, a symbol of bureaucratic culture. In the Zhengde period (1506-1521), being embroiled in the Liu Jin incident, Kang lost his government post. He spent his time on Northern songs with Wang Jiusi, which shows that he was still concerned about fighting for legitimacy for Northern culture. On the front of poetry, “qian qizi” emphasize “bixing” (metaphor) poetics. They aim to revive Mao Chang and Zheng Xuan’s interpretative tradition, which stresses the importance of “meici” parables in Shijing. Their idea was vastly different to Zhu Xi’s interpretation of Shiji zhuan, which was highly popular at that time. The “qian qizi’s” thinking on poetic history has much in common with the revival concept of the Tang poets, yet because of an over-emphasis on the technique of “bixing,” they had to use an enormous amount of imageries in traditional classics to make known to the readers the meaning of their parables and allegories, or they had to imitate the structure of eight line rhymed verses to bring up the theme. The issue of whether techniques of classical poetry should be adopted in the creation of eight line poems brought disagreement within the group. During the Jiajing period (1522-1566), the revival movement gradually subsided. Hu Zuanzong, a native of the Shanxi province, compiled Yong Yin. This book that made a pedigree of poets from Shijing to the Shanxi revivalist formed a literary text that summarizes the literary movement.
Note Thesis (Ph.D.)--Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 2013
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Language Chinese
Format Thesis
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