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江山代有才人出-中国教育精英的来源与转变 (1865-2014)

Social Transformation and Elitist Education:Changes in the Social and Geographical Origins of China’s Educated Elites(1865-2014)

Authors 梁晨
任韵竹 HKUST affiliated (currently or previously)
李中清 View this author's profile
Issue Date 2017
Source 社会学研究 , (3), 2017, p. 48-70
Summary 布尔迪厄、卡拉贝尔等一批西方学者研究论证了精英教育在法、美等国主要用于政治和财富精英群体社会再生产的现实与机制。通过量化分析晚清、民国和共和国时期近150年来教育精英大规模微观数据,本文发现,在国家和社会的历史变迁中,中国教育精英的社会和地理来源非常多元,随着教育传统和考试制度的演变,出现了多次结构性转变,形成了特点迥异的四个阶段。这些历史特征与西方经验显著不同,不仅对中国当代社会阶层与流动影响深远,也是理解中西方社会精英构成与历史发展路径差异的重要基础。 In the last thirty years, Western scholars from Bourdieu (1989/1998) to Karabel(2006) have gone to great length to document how in France and the United States, national social and economic elites monopolize elite higher education. In China, in contrast, a system of elite examinations admits students from different social backgrounds. This paper uses a Big Historical Dataset that includes most imperial degree holders, the majority of Republican university students, and all undergraduate students from selected elite PRC universities to document how alterations in the examination system during the last 150 years have changed the social origins of successful degree candidates during four distinct periods: 1865-1905, 1906-1952, 1953-2003, and 2004-2014. Our results suggest that while elite higher education largely reproduces social and economic elites elsewhere in the world, in China the elite higher education is more independent and in fact produces new elites who contribute to a process of continuous transformation of the Chinese society.
Language Chinese
Format Article
Access Find@HKUST